From the history of Moscow healthcare

Aptekarskiy Prikaz (Pharmaceutical Department) of Ivan the Terrible

+ -
    According to documentary evidence, the emergence of professional doctors in Moscow dates back to the 70s of the 15th century. The first of them were part of the suite of Sophia Paleologue - the wife of Ivan III. The need for state care for the sick and injured and organization for this purpose was for the first time declared under Ivan the Terrible in the decisions of Stoglav Cathedral (1551). In 1581 in the Kremlin the first (so-called "tsar’s") pharmacy was created to serve the monarch and his family. In 1620 the Aptekarskiy Prikaz was created. Under supervision of Aptekarskiy Prikaz, in addition to physicians and pharmacists working in Moscow, was the medical care for the royal family and officials of the Monarchic Court, as well as anti-epidemic activity, determining the suitability of service-men, holding examinations for foreign doctors who came to Russia, and many other tasks. Under Tsar Aleksei Mikhailovich several pharmacies were already operating in Moscow selling medicines to the population, and the first hospitals also started to appear. At the same time, the education and training of own medical personnel began. In 1654, the first medical school was opened under the Aptekarskiy Prikaz in Moscow. In 1678, the decree of Tsar Fyodor Alekseevich established the first state medical institution in Moscow - the Military Temporary Hospital for the wounded near Chigirin during the Russo-Turkish War of 1676-1681. It was located in the Ryazan courtyard. And in 1682, also during the reign of Fyodor Alekseevich, the first civil hospital was established in the Grenade Court near the Nikitsky Gate.

From Peter the Great to Catherine the Great

+ -
    Reforms of the entire state system, conducted by Peter the Great, could not but affect public health. Many foreign doctors were invited to the Russian service; new medical institutions were actively built. In 1701 it was decreed "to arrange 8 new pharmacies" in Moscow and a little later, the building of the Main Pharmacy was erected on Red Square. On May 25, 1706 Peter signed a decree on the creation of the hospital over the Yauza River, opposite the German Quarter (currently the Main Military Clinical Hospital named after NN Burdenko). The hospital opened the following year, and the Moscow hospital school established with it (since 1798 - the Moscow Medical and Surgical Academy), for a long time became the largest institutions of Moscow healthcare.
    Reforms also affected the management system. The highest administrative body was the Medical Chancellery in St. Petersburg, and its branch was created in Moscow, which was named the Medical Office (1725). It was entrusted with the management of civilian medical institutions and the activities of private practitioners. The Medical Office was headed by a state – physician. The first Moscow state-physician was the Dutchman Antonius DeTeles. The Medical Office in Moscow consisted of two doctors and one healer who, in addition to providing medical assistance, had to conduct forensic medical examinations of those who unexpectedly died and were murdered.
    In 1755 the Moscow University was opened in the building of the Main Pharmacy near the Resurrection Gates; and the medical faculty was opened in 1758. The first student, and subsequently the first Russian professor of medicine at Moscow University was S.G. Zybelin.
    In 1763 the construction of the Pavlovsk hospital began. In 1764 the Foundling Home was opened, in which the hospital was set up "for the suffering unhappy born children" and the maternity hospital at which the first Moscow school for midwifes was created, which was transformed in 1801 into the Institute of Midwifes.

Great Reforms

+ -
    A new stage in the development of Moscow healthcare began under Catherine II. Published in 1775, "Institution for the management of the governorates" established Prikaz of public assistance in each governorate, whose functions included the organization of medical care.
    In Moscow the Prikaz of public assistance was opened in 1782 and the first hospital that entered into its jurisdiction was the Catherine's Hospital founded in 1776.
    In 1843, under the Prikaz of public assistance a hospital was created for laborer class for 500 beds (modeled on a similar hospital in St. Petersburg). Later, in three parts of the city, its branches were opened, and they eventually became independent hospitals (Yauzsky, Basmanny and Myasnitsky), and the hospital for laborers was called Staryeokaterininsky (in 1923 the Moscow Regional Research Clinical Institute named after M F.V. Vladimirsky was opened on its base).
    Two Moscow hospitals, opened in the first half of the XIX century, were under the Office of the Institutions of the Empress Maria: the Mariinsky Hospital for the Poor founded in 1806and the so-called City hospital.
    Two more large Moscow hospitals were founded and were supported by private donations: the hospital at the Sheremetev Hospice House (opened in 1810, later transformed to the Sklifosovsky Institute of Emergency Care in 1923) and the Golitsyn hospital (in 1919 merged with the City Hospital # 1).

From Municipal statutes to the Revolution

+ -
    The development of the principles of public self-government in the second half of the XIX century changed the system of local government, entrusting the local authorities with the health care and the sanitary improvement of the cities.
    During this period City hospitals began to open in Moscow: City Hospital # 2 named after Prince A.A. Shcherbatov (1866) and St. Vladimir's Children's Hospital (1876).
    In 1887many Moscow hospitals were transferred to the city government: from the Office of the Empress Maria - the City hospital # 1 and from the Board of Trustees of Prikaz of public assistance - Preobrazhensky, Starokaterininsky, Yauzsky, Basmanny and Myasnitsky hospitals. In the late XIX and early XX century private donations for the establishment of medical institutions that were transferred to the city government were widely popular. Thus Bakhrushinsky hospital (1887), Alexeyevsky Eye hospital (1900), Morozovskaya Children's hospital (1902), Medvednikovsky hospital (1903) and others were established.
    In 1894, a new city psychiatric hospital was opened at Kanatchikova Dacha (since 1922 - the Moscow Clinical Psychiatric Hospital named after P.P. Kashchenko).
    In 1910 another hospital was opened (for more than 500 beds), built on funds, bequeathed by K.T. Soldatenkov (in 1920, the Moscow City Council decree gave the hospital the name of S.P. Botkin).
    In total, by 1911, 19 hospitals with 6,130 regular beds (7 general, 2 children's, 2 psychiatric, 1 eye, 1 for venereal diseases, 1 for post-natal patients, 3 for incurable and chronic patients and 2 temporary general). In addition, the city operated a network of outpatient clinics for incoming patients and a network of obstetric facilities. Expenses for the medical and sanitary carein 1910 amounted to more than 5 million rubles (14.7% of the total city budget).
    The total number of beds in Moscow hospitals by 1917 reached 9 000. In the late XIX - early XX centuries, the first emergency stations appeared, that existed until the outbreak of the First World War.

The first years of Soviet government

+ -
    Virtually immediately after the October Revolution, the creation of a new state health system started. After the victory of the armed uprising in Moscow, the management of the city economy was transferred to the Council of District Dumas, established by the Moscow Committee of the Russian communist party of the Bolsheviks. Among the structural divisions of the Council was the medical-sanitary IX department, headed by N.A. Semashko.
    In December 1917, the Council of District Dumas formed an Interim Meeting on the organization of medical and sanitary affairs in the city, and three months later - the Sanitary Council.
    On March 11, 1918 Moscow was declared the capital, and the issues of the public health in the city gained republic level significance. Soon the Council of Medical Boards was transferred to Moscow (the highest medical body in the republic, replaced on July 11, 1918 by the People's Commissariat of Health).
    In May 1918, the Presidium of the Moscow Soviet took over medical and sanitary work in the city. Medical-sanitary IX department was replaced by the Medical and Sanitary Department of the Moscow Soviet. NA. Semashko (soon appointed a People's Commissar for Health) and a three-member panel were in charge of the head of the department. Since October 1919, the Medical and Sanitary Department was renamed the City Department of Health of the Moscow Council, and in 1920 merged with the Moscow Provincial Department of Health (the unified management of the Medical and Sanitary Affairs in Moscow and the governorate (region) was maintained until 1931).
    For ten years since 1919, the Department of Health in Moscow was headed by a well-known party figure, one of the physicians of V.I. Lenin and his family - VA. Obukh.
    In the first years after the revolution, the activities of the Department were aimed mainly at combating epidemics, sanitizing Moscow, establishing full control over all medical institutions in the capital and the governorate.
    By 1924-1925 the network and productivity of medical institutions that existed before the First World War was restored. The city had 30 hospitals, 2 tuberculosis hospitals, 7 mental hospitals, 16 maternity hospitals and more than 60 outpatient clinics.
    In 1919, it was decided to organize an emergency station at the Sheremetevsky hospital. With the creation in 1923 of the Scientific Research Institute named after N.V. Sklifosovsky, designed to research methodological problems of emergency medical care, the emergency station became its department (since the 1930s it again became an independent institution with a network of substations).
    The main principles of state medicine in this period were strict centralization, free, public access and preventive focus, which in general determined the development of healthcare in the following years.

Healthcare in Moscow from 1931 to 1990

+ -
    In 1931, Moscow became an independent subject of the RSFSR. In the same year, a resolution was adopted by the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party of the Bolsheviks "On the Moscow City Economy and the Development of City Economy in the USSR." The Moscow City Council (Mossovet) was formed, and within it the Moscow City Office of Health, whose competence included all questions of medical nature, except for pharmacy and veterinary. (In 1968, Moscow City Office of Health was transformed by the decision of the Executive Committee of the Moscow City Council into the General Directorate of Health).
    By the beginning of the war the system of medical institutions of the capital was fully formed. In 1940, there were 138 hospitals under the authority of the Moscow City Office of Health, providing care to 29.7 thousand people. A network of outpatient clinics (several per district), dispensaries, consultations, sanitary-epidemiological stations was created.
    During the Great Patriotic War, many Moscow hospitals were converted into military hospitals, additional health and sanitary posts were opened at enterprises, and sanitary control over the city was significantly strengthened. In the postwar period, the priority areas for the development of healthcare in Moscow were the expansion of the treatment and prevention network, the development of emergency and home care, pharmacy, etc.
    By 1947 the number of medical institutions had not only reached, but surpassed the pre-war level. In the same year, outpatient clinics were merged with hospitals, significantly improving diagnostics and treatment. Single integrated plans of sanitary and medical measures were developed and started to be implemented. Preventive examination of students was widespread; employees of enterprises were covered by district medical services; patients with hypertension and diabetes mellitus were placed under constant follow-up.
    Emphasis was on the training of medical personnel. In 1954, it was decided to create additional medical schools to train qualified specialists. By the end of the 1960s, about 4,000 people graduated from the city's medical schools.
    The development of Moscow's healthcare in the 60-80s was largely determined by the inclusion of new territory in the city and the emergence of new residential areas. To provide medical services to the population, large hospital and outpatient complexes were created there, the number of outpatient clinics, dispensaries, emergency stations, and sanitary-epidemiological stations increased.
    In 1989, 995 outpatient clinics and 168 hospitals for more than 100,000 beds were under General Directorate of Health of the Moscow City Executive Committee.

Contemporary history

+ -
    After the formation of the Russian Federation as an independent state, radical changes took place in the state structure of the country. The municipal administration reform was also carried out. In Moscow, which received the status of a subject of the Federation, the legislative power is represented by the City Duma (replacing the Moscow City Council), and the executive is represented by the Mayor of the city and the Government of Moscow, whose competence includes all issues of urban management, education, healthcare, etc.
    In November 1990 the General Directorate of Health was reorganized into the Main Medical Directorate of the Moscow City Executive Committee (and with the formation of the Moscow Government - to the Main Medical Directorate of Moscow). In September 1994, the Dirctorate was transformed into the Moscow Healthcare Department. Then on July 22, 1996 it became the Committee of Healthcare, and in 2003 - again the Moscow Healthcare Department.

Heads of Moscow Healthcare 1931-2017

Full name

Period of employment

Sizov (Name and patronymic are missing)

01.03.1931 – 07.07.1931

Dmitry Efimov

08.07.1931 – 10.03.1937

Alexander Nadzharov (acting)

11.03.1937 – 07.08.1937

Kondraty Monakhov (acting)

08.08.1937 – 02.11.1937

Anna Preys (acting)

03.11.1937 – 07.12.1937

Alexander Afonin (acting)

08.12.1937 – 14.06.1938

Sergey Zolotov (acting)

15.06.1938 – 26.08.1938

Agnia Znachkova

27.08.1938 – 04.01.1939

David Levant

05.01.1939 – 10.05.1943

Peter Pridannikov

11.05.1943 – 27.03.1953

Semen Chesnokov

28.03.1953 – 16.07.1954

Nikifor Lapchenko

17.07.1954 – 27.08.1965

Leonid Vorohobov

30.08.1965 – 03.02.1986

Vladimir Mudrak

13.03.1986 – 01.03.1989

Alexey Moskvichev

02.03.1989 – 24.06.1990

Valery Galich (acting)

27.06.1990 – 17.07.1990

Rudolf Anufriev

18.07.1990 – 31.03.1992

Anatoly Soloviev

11.04.1992 – 30.09.1996

Andrei Seltsovsky

01.10.1996 – 26.10.2010

Sergey Polyakov

01.11.2010 – 13.12.2010

Leonid Pechatnikov

14.12.2010 – 25.05.2012

Georgiy Golukhov

26.05.2012 - 09.10.2014

Alexey Khripun

10.10.2014 – till present